Name Reaction
For historical reasons many reactions are named after the chemist(s) who first described the process, the substrates which react or the products which are formed.

Name reactions usually involve long multi-step reaction pathways which are rather specific about the nature of the substrates which partake in the reaction and/or the reaction conditions. For example, the "Cannizzaro reaction" requires aldehydes which are devoid of alpha-hydrogens for the reaction to progress.

For more information look in the Chemogenesis webbook section on name reactions.